Contribution of Classroom Climate to the Teaching of Agriculture at Senior Secondary Schools in Eswatini


  • Alfred Tsikati University of Eswatini
  • Siboniso Mabuza Mshengu High School



classroom climate, presage variable, context variable, process variable, product variable


The impact of classroom climate on students and staff can be either beneficial or a barrier to the teaching and learning process. Unfortunately, there is no study that has been conducted on the contribution of classroom climate to the teaching of high school agriculture students in Eswatini. Therefore, the study sought to find out the contribution of classroom climate to the teaching of agriculture in senior secondary schools in Eswatini. An exploratory research design was used in the study. A total of sixteen schools were randomly selected; and one agriculture class was picked for an observation for the contribution of classroom climate to the teaching of agriculture. After the observation, an interview was conducted with the classroom teacher to complement and explain some of the observation. The observation schedule and interview protocol were peer reviewed to address issues of trustworthiness. Data were collected in February 2019. Findings revealed that the four variables: presage, context, process and products were contributing to the classroom climate; thus enhancing the teaching of agriculture. Therefore, the study recommended that agriculture must be taught by teachers who have received training on the subject matter and have the technical skill in solving problems.


Download data is not yet available.


Adelman,N., & Taylor, E. (1997). Using peer tutoring as a successful past behaviour management, teaching exceptional children. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications

Adelman, H. S. & Taylor, L. (2005). Classroom climate. In S. W. Lee, P. A. Lowe, & E

Robinson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of School Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Andrew, T. (2008). Create a learning environment that promotes respect. Retrieved from

Bryant, B. (2009). The relationship between pre-service teachers, Psychology types, critical thinking and teacher efficacy on percieved performance. Texas Tech. University.

Connell, J.P., & Klem, A.M. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student's engagement. Journal of School Health, 74, 262-230.

Dunkin, M.J., & Biddle, B.J. (1974). Study of teaching. New York: Holt Rinehart and Wnston.

Fraser, B.J. (1998). Research on classroom climate. Newyork: Macmillan.

Fraser, B.J., & Goh, S.C. (2000). Teacher interpersonal behaviour and elementary student's outcomes. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 14, 216-230.

Freiberg, H. (1999). Measuring, Improving and Sustaining Healthy Learning Environments. Philadelphia: Falmer press.

Furlong, M. J., Whipple, A. D., Jean, G. S., Simental, J., Soliz, A., & Punthuna, S. (2003).

Multiple contexts of school engagement: Moving toward a unifying framework for educational research and practice. The California School Psychologist, 8(1), 99–113. https :// 40899 .

Hussin, S., Maarof, N, & Dcuiz, J. (2001). Sustaining an interest in learning english and increasing the motivation to learning english. The internet Tesl journal. Retrieved from motivation

Fung, L., & Chow, L.P.Y. (2008). Congruence of student teachers pedagogical images and actual classroom practices. educational research. University of Hong Kong.

Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and

emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491–525. Retrieved from https :// 54308 32569 3.

Lile, W. (2002). Motivation in the ESL classroom. Retrieved from


Mahony, P., & Hextall I. (2000). Standards, performance & accountability. London: Routledge Falmer.

Mashburn, A. J., Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., Downer, J. T., Barbarin, O. A., Bryant, D., et al.

(2008). Measures of classroom quality in prekindergarten and children’s development of academic, language, and social skills. Child Development, 79(3), 732–749. Retrieved from https ://

Nonkukhetkhong, K., Baldauf, R.B., & Moni, K. (2009). learner centeredness in treating English as a foreign language. 26 Thaitesol International Conference, (pp. 19-20). Chiang Mai.

Price, L. (2011). Modelling factors for predicting students outcomes in higher education. London, Open University.

Ormrod. (2003). Educational Psychology: Developing learners. Merril pretice hall.

Prosser, M., Trigwell, K., & Waterhouse, F. (1999). relations between teacher approaches to teaching and students to learning higher education. University of Tasmania

Rimm-Kaufamn, S. E., La Paro, K. M., Downer, J. T., & Pianta, R. C. (2005). The contribution

of classroom setting and quality of instruction to children’s behaviour in kindergarten classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 105(4), 377–394. https :// 861.

Schonert-Reichl, K. A., Hanson-Peterson, J. L., & Hymel, S. (2016). SEL and preservice teacher

education. In J. Durlak, C. E. Domitrovich, R. P. Weissberg, & T. P. Gullotta (Eds.), Handbook of social and emotional learning: Research and practice. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Schuh, K. (2004). Learner centred principles in techer centred practice. University of Hong Kong

Shewark, E. A., Zinsser, K, M. & Denham S. A. (2018). Teachers’ Perspectives on the

Consequences of Managing Classroom Climate. Child & Youth Care Forum 47, 787–802. Retrieved from

Vedder, P., Kouwehoven, C., & Burk, W.J. (2009). Classroom climate and students goal preferences. A cross-cultural comparison scandinavian journal of psychology, 50, 143–150.

White, J. (2007). Learner centered teacher-student relation is effective: meta-analysis. Review of educational research. London: Macmillan.




How to Cite

Tsikati, A., & Mabuza, S. (2023). Contribution of Classroom Climate to the Teaching of Agriculture at Senior Secondary Schools in Eswatini . NACTA Journal, 67(1).